Stephen Rees's blog

Thoughts about the relationships between transport and the urban area it serves

Posts Tagged ‘BRT

Express bus corridors increasingly popular transit option

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The Globe and Mail gets on the BRT. Mostly, being Toronto’s national newspaper, it’s about what is happening at the centre of the known universe. But the longish article is quite a good summary of the whys and wherefores of BRT. It is relevant to us here because Translink is now in consultation mode for transit expansion in Surrey that will include this mode as well as LRT and SkyTrain

BRT Rending Surrey Rapid Transit

Translink's rendering of Bus Rapid Transit on 104 Avenue and 144 Street. A better image of this type of bus is shown at the end of this article

A couple of things that I think need to be pointed out. As the second paragraph makes clear we are only looking at this mode because it seems to be cheap. Cities are indeed “cash strapped” – but they need not be, and that is only a reflection of some very short sighted and deeply regressive taxation policies that seem to have taken over western society in general. There is still plenty of tax payer’s money available for things our present political leadership deems worthwhile, like fighter jets, or massive prisons. BRT should save money on upfront costs of equipment and infrastructure, but much depends on the degree of separation required. Ottawa spent a fortune on a grade separated right of way – but cheaped out in downtown, where buses were forced back into mixed traffic with entirely predictable impacts on service speeds and reliability.They also operated buses on conventional streets to do collection and delivery in the suburbs to give a one seat ride and no forced transfers – which tended to compensate for that.

But the capacity restraint of BRT hits at quite a low threshold. “As the demand starts to grow and you start to need buses more frequently, then the labour costs of BRT grow really quickly.” (Jeff Casello, an associate professor of transportation at the University of Waterloo.)

Bus Rapid Transit in Ottawa

Bus Rapid Transit in Ottawa by Ottawa Bus Gallery on flickr. On May 18th 2010, an incident caused this backlog to build up on the busway

Ottawa started looking at LRT some years ago: “the city plans to replace some portions of its BRT with an underground light-rail line to serve the downtown core”.

In Vancouver, in 2006, a decision was made to replace the highly successful, five-year-old bus corridor in Richmond with LRT, in order to have greater capacity.

Translink R8076 D60LF on 98 B Line Richmond BC 2007_0708

98 B Line on No 3 Road in Richmond July, 2007 - my photo

“Highly successful” seems to me to be debatable. It was chosen originally by an NDP government in Victoria and there was more than a little political spite involved. The former government had been planning LRT for Richmond – which is where the Vancouver commitment to the Cambie Heritage Boulevard came from. The NPA did not want surface running LRT. Glen Clark was happy to commit a very limited sum ($25m if my memory serves) to a bus service since Richmond would NOT get rail as long as he had anything to do with it. I will confess I did not hear him say that in person – but those at BC Transit in charge were given very definite marching orders. In the process of negotiation with City of Vancouver engineers, BRT was soon whittled down to a bus that did not stop as frequently as regular buses but would allow Vancouver passengers to board. (At that time, suburban buses sped past Vancouver stops as they were limited to suburban riders.) Only in Richmond was there any exclusive right of way and that was limited to a very short section of No 3 Road – which was supposed to be convertible to light rail in the future. When it was launched as the 98 BLine the overloading with passengers travelling to and from Marpole avoiding their slow trolleybus service – and the Richmond passengers lost to the forced transfer – meant that “express buses” came back very soon afterwards.

As for capacity on the Canada Line (which I find it hard to think of as LRT) I have exhausted that subject in other posts.

There are as many kinds of BRT as there are LRT – and a very wide variety of experiences to draw upon. Much depends on local circumstances and conventions. Not too many places, outside of South America, have double articulated high floor buses on exclusive rights of way with pre-payment at raised stations (Curitiba). The nearest we have to BRT now is the 99 B Line and that is overwhelmed when UBC is in session and gets little in the way of bus priority anywhere.

Bogota Transmileno BRT

Bogota Transmileno BRT photo by "Dear Edward" on flickr

It seems to me that the critical indicator that the Globe does not mention is relative speed. Relative, that is, to cars. As long as people can drive and park then the overall journey time door to door is likely to be faster and more convenient in a single occupant vehicle than most types of transit. That is because the car takes you almost door to door, whereas transit takes you from somewhere where you are not to where you do not really want to be. Now when the car driver faces congestion and a lack of parking spaces then transit starts to look attractive. Given the access and egress inconvenience of transit (i.e. walk time to and from the station at each end) anything that can be done to improve in vehicle time compared to driving is going to produce benefits in transit share of the market. But in Vancouver, the most that has been done with bus is to improve bus in vehicle time to be about the same as the car just by stopping less frequently. Though in the City of Vancouver even that gets reduced due to the City’s insistence on frequent stops for the B line. By giving transit its own right of way, the transit vehicle (bus, tram or train) moves faster than the car. That is all the “rapid” that is needed – and in some cases of short trips, the passion we have for grade separation means that access times – getting up or down to the platform – offsets the speed advantage. One of the great things about surface rapid transit is that access times are minimized – and the right of way can be taken from car/sov street capacity. I say “can be” only because in North America in general – and in Greater Vancouver in particular – it usually isn’t. Bus lanes or HOV lanes are usually added not subtracted from GP capacity.

The great lesson from Copenhagen – which I also never tire of repeating- is that space for cars must be steadily reduced over time. We can never ever keep up with the demand for car trips by adding capacity. It is pointless trying. When subways replaced streetcars on Yonge Street in Toronto, traffic downtown increased. Traffic expands to fill the space available.

It is this that matters – not what sort of wheels the transit has. As long as we use BRT or LRT to try and accommodate insatiable demand for car trips, then we are doomed to exist in uncivilized places. Once we start thinking of cities as places for people – not their cars – then we start making progress.

RTC's MAX BRT line

MAX BRT line that serves downtown Las Vegas out to Nellis AFB. Photo by Erik Weber on flickr

Postscript: see also The Transport Politic “The Silly Argument Over BRT and Rail”

Written by Stephen Rees

May 23, 2011 at 4:34 pm

Posted in transit, Transportation

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Sustainable Mobility & Cycling in New York

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Janette Sadik-Khan

“Learning from New York”

Shifting Gears II series SFU City Program at the Convention Centre, October 19

This was probably the largest audience for one of these lectures that I have seen: somehow everyone managed to get in although that meant a late start at 7:25 due to the length of line up.

Gordon Price opened with his memory of  New York in the late seventies when everything looked bleak and dangerous. But New York has now surely earned the title of The Resilient City.  No matter how bad things look cities can come back  faster and in ways you could never imagine. At the same time as this meeting, the convention centre was also hosting a conference called “Gaining Ground: Resilient Cities”.

Larry Frank introduced the speaker Janette Sadik-Khan

Janette Sadik-Khan

Janette Sadik-Khan

What most impressed her on her first visit here was that we have an integrated transit system, where one ticket allows one to ride on a bus, ferry or SkyTrain. “For ten years I have longed for your “golden ticket””

She said that much of success had depended on her ability to borrow best practices from other places. “We have to do a better job: to restructure our cities [to serve people better].  Cycling is just one component.”

Mayor Bloomberg started with a planning exercise – PlanNYC – a systematic examination to reduce the environmental impact of urban systems.   The transportation area is the one that has the most profound impact, and the plan calls for transit expansion as well as cycling and congestion pricing. A plan to introduce a charge of  $8 per car entering Manhattan had majority support in the city but was defeated by the state legislators,  who did not even vote on it .  Only 5% of people drive in NYC.  Sustainable streets 2009 is the strategic plan – with benchmarks so that NYC DOT will be held accountable for major goals. The basis is that streets are for people. NYC has  6,000 miles of streets which are valuable public spaces, not just for making cars go as fast as possible. They will become green corridors and are part of a social and economic plan. She noted that people quickly take over these spaces “once the orange barrels are rolled out.”  Times Square and  Herald Square (both on Broadway) were the first part of a  rapid implementation program. The  World Class Streets Report was commissioned from Jan Gehl which found that 30% of Broadway [sidewalks] were covered in scaffolding with only 3 outdoor cafes and no seats.  “We want to provide seats for New Yorkers.”

Roads are now much safer with the lowest traffic casualty figures since 1910. Children and seniors are over represented in the statistics of fatalities, so NYC is looking at both safer routes to school and for seniors. They targetted 25 focus areas: senior traffic fatalities are down 43% in one year.

The new mobility network is based on selected bus services which now get bus priority lanes with camera enforcement. 98% of riders were satisfied (“This never happens!”) Bus Rapid Transit is much cheaper and faster to deploy than rail. NYC has the largest bus fleet in North America and the slowest bus speeds.  “The only way to get across town was to be born there.”  [Most subway lines in Manhattan run north-south]

Infrastructure repair has been taken care of and now all of the bridges and most of the roads are in a state of good repair. They have created a network of cycling “backbones” – bike lanes on the four East River bridges and a bike highway on the West Side. There are now 200 miles of bike lanes and they starting to fill in the network. Some of these are innovative such as the bike lanes on the centre median of the Manhattan Bridge, use of advanced boxes at traffic signals and protected bike lanes, an idea imported from Copenhagen where bikes are put inside the parking lane. This uses the parked cars to protect cyclists and reduces collisions with drivers opening doors, but also preserves parking and truck loading/unloading. Crashes are down 50% and cycling is up 50%.

New York City has to accommodate 1m more people by 2030. But she also noted that the average New Yorker has one third of the carbon footprint of the average American – simply because they do not drive so much.

She showed an image of a family on bikes on a new lane that had not been completed. “Families are the indicator species: if you are 7 or 70, you should feel safe on the street.”

Lunchtime in Bryant Park

These changes are good for business. Bryant Park 20 years ago was an open drug exchange,  now is now surrounded by some of the most desirable real estate in the city.   They recently completed the “park in the sky” – the High Line – a former elevated railway which has stimulated $50m of investment along its route.

The linear plazas on Broadway mix pedestrians and cyclists but the bike lanes are not for racing at top speed. Cycling is not an extreme sport, which is what it used to be. “It is not alternative, it is fundamental”. The  pedestrian space was achieved through lane re-allocation.  Broadway is no longer a through street. Broadway is the only diagonal in a the grid, and was always a nightmare for traffic engineers. They have now reconnected the grid and restored the space needed to accommodate the 300,000 or more pedestrians who use it every day. Now that there is enough space, even New Yorkers are enjoying Times Square.

From this experience a new street design manual has emerged through the partnership of 11 agencies,  to ensure that the approach continues.  NACTO is to develop guidelines to become an alternative to MUTCD.

NYC is also adding bike parking with new designs of bike racks and they have tripled the number  of bike racks in the city.   David Byrne, author of  “Bike Diaries” has been responsible for some of the more innovative designs. The demand for bicycle parking at bus stops has been so great that NYC is now creating bike parking on street at transit stops. Indoor parking for bicycles has also been a huge issue because of the fear of bike theft. They are now creating indoor parking in government buildings and bike access is being legislated for private buildings.  All new buildings have to provide bike parking.

Bicycle use increased by 35%  in 2008 and is expected to double by 2013. Casualties are declining: there is  safety in numbers but also due to an awareness program LOOK

America faces a crisis of obesity and diabetes. New York started summer street closures – 7 miles of Park Ave. “I want to see many yellow checkered bikes” she said that they have been looking at the Montreal bixi system.

All the information she referred to is available on line

Q & A

Gordon Price pointed out that Translink had paid to bring Janette here.

1. What can we most teach each other?

New York should adopt Vancouver’s use of the bike symbol on signs. Vancouver should adopt protected bike lanes

2. There seems to be a cultural debate: The  Netherlands uses unregulated  shared space to encourage social interaction.  We tend to use signs and separation.

But Paris has seen great success with bike lanes and advanced boxes as well as its Velib program.  Different cities need different approaches. An unregulated space in a city like New York would become a scrum. “It’s a war out there!” We want to engineer safe streets. She referred to their approach as  “urban acupuncture”, applying pointed approaches to specific critical locations and this has been driving down fatalities to a third of what they were.

Q follow up on the scale and speed of changes in NY:  what made that possible?

Firstly the umbrella of  PlanNYC. There was  tremendous buy in, with the  recognition of the need for more effective solutions. New York was tired of plans that take 25 years to happen. The rapid implementation was literally painting the outlines. There was not much digging [in sharp contrast,  I thought, to what is still not yet complete on Granville Street]. Once we  rolled out the orange barrels, people took over.  Since Robert Moses paved a lot of NYC we had a lot to play with!

4     You said that your plan was better for business with lots of pedestrians and you referred to property values. That would not be the same for muffler shops. Are you prepared to purchase the businesses that are car dependent?


5   Please tell us more about “creative financing” as referred to by Larry Frank

The 7 line extension is using tax increment financing: the  increase in property values due  to the new facility should  go to the agency that provides it. PPPs make sense if the terms are good, but the public sector needs to up its game: the private sector has been better at securing its own interests.  They could apply to both port and rail expansions. TIF is a simple idea: zone around the project to identify properties that will benefit (our whole city is TOD) and capture that incremental value. Increases in property tax revenues are then used to service a bond issue.

6   How much is the change in mode share worth in terms of reducing pressure on infrastructure?

We don’t have that data yet: it is a ripe area for research and is an effective way to make the case. We  can make the case for transit in terms of the roads and bridges not built.

While there are doubtless significant savings in infrastructure, there are also on major benefits to health side. The lack of active transportation is a public health crisis.

7 – How does this work outside of Manhattan?

There is a huge program in all five boroughs – e.g Bronx hub and extensive BRT.  “People can’t be wished onto buses” we have to increase capacity so that the buses are seen as  “surface subways”. The population of New York is 8.2m – which effectively means there are 8.2m traffic engineers. We hold 200 meetings a month to listen to the concerns and suggestions. There is a strong appetite for transit and we plan “8 to 10 BRT networks” in the next few years

8  The questioner spoke at length about China and how the use of bikes has declined due to “market forces”. In fact driving is promoted by vested interests who will undermine your program just as they conspired to kill the streetcar. Most of the federal stimulus funds are going to roads and freeways. He also suggested that urban communities should be limited to a maximum of 5,ooo population max . He cited Plato who pointed to the complexity of problems of large cities. In Canada 80% of the population is now in cities and we need to read Lewis Mumford again to deal with this problem.

China is  investing heavily in transit – for example in Shanghai. This is a strong sign.  We are going back to the cities in the US. There are now over 100 streetcar city projects and an increase in the role of ferries. The  world is increasingly urban. People moving back into NYC  “We kinda like hanging out”. We can save the planet with cities and make cities work much better by sharing what works.

9 – The questioner liked the idea of changing streets as a better use of resources but said that “in the turf war for asphalt, bikes are getting squeezed out.” He asked are painted curbs safe? New Westminster uses concrete curbs which tend to reduce the overall amount of usable space.

Times Square shared the streets and  is curbless, but we had to tread carefully so that bikes don’t race through. We are not at a “cultural tipping point” [I think she was referring to earlier remarks about Dutch “naked streets“.]

10 – Referring to her comment on how congestion pricing was defeated, “we no longer control Translink”.  How would you have transportation funded,  planned and implemented in an ideal world?

Look at Portland:  the regional growth boundary has teeth.  The region has therefore a robust transit system with incredible perform of the network. They extended MAX to the airport using a  P3.

She also noted that there are three different entities in New York and they don’t have common fare system.

11 – The questioner came from Ladysmith where, he said,  no-one rides – they are afraid.  How do we get the sceptics to use bikes

The NYC Summer Streets program includes bike teaching and gave away 25,000 helmets. They introduced weekend walks programs. However it is recognized that “etiquette” and “New Yorkers” are not often in the same sentence and  traffic signals are treated as suggestions.

12 .  Can you speak more about metrics and agencies – 3 Es [effectiveness, efficiency – there seems to be many suggestions for the third] pedestrian safety

“I’m big fan of pilot” – communities know their streets better than anyone else. You can use paint to produce some sidewalk extensions and use potted plants to impose a quick traffic calming scheme. In 1990 it was 365 pedestrian deaths a year. We now make more interesting places which send different cues to drivers that slows them down.

15 – Tell us more about covered bike shelters

The rain in Vancouver is a myth –  just like in Portland. It is something you tell people to try and stem the influx.  More is better. But also you need to look at  connectivity – fill in the network , and protected bike lanes. We both need a  bike share program.  Each city has to make strategic choices and in our case the is now increasing  bike parking in buildings.

Paris too opposed BRT initially: French minister

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Times of India

High Capacity Bus System Corridors for Delhi

Sometimes I feel the need to find a different source of stories – and so far today not one comes from CanWestGlobal.

Delhi has been getting stick for its new BRT lines (form the Times of India among others) but

French transport minister Dominique Bussecreau, who on Wednesday told chief minister Sheila Dikshit that France too faced much opposition when the first BRT corridor came up in Paris. Pointing out that now “all was well” with the project, the French minister revealed that the corridor in Paris stretched over 44 kilometres.

He further offered possible funding assistance to undertake a detailed survey and study for commissioning of tramways in Delhi

initiatives being taken by the French government in curbing pollution. The initiatives included free cycle service, electrical cars and hybrid cars.

The point being of course that what is needed is not a one size fits all solution but appropriate technology for the needs of the service. Anyone who tells you that cablecars or aerial tramways will solve all our problems is a snake oil salesman. It is inevitable that many different modes are needed, but the one we currently rely on – a gasoline driven single occupant vehicle that takes up half of the road space needed for a 40 seater bus – is not going to be around for very much longer. And what we will have to concentrate on is

the need to integrate different modes of Public Transport.

That last comes from Delhi “chief minister Sheila Dikshit”. And she is right.

Written by Stephen Rees

May 16, 2008 at 10:55 am

Posted in transit

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Back to the future – Bus Rapid Transit

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San Fransisco Chronicle

Henry Gardner is the executive director of the Association of Bay Area Governments and former city manager of Oakland.

And he is trying to advance the cause of BRT by re-awakening memories of the old Key System. I am at all sure that this is wise. Firstly because a lot of people who are young or new to the area will not understand the references, an dthose that do may be misled. Yes we all used to ride the interurban once upon a time but modern transit systems are a lot better than that was.

But the reason I wanted to quote the article is this gem

Critics point to the effects on automobile use as reasons to oppose the project. But some difficult trade-offs will need to be made to improve public transit and improve traffic flow, even if there are impacts on motorists.

Effects on automobile use are precisely the point. And the greater the impact the better. The automobile and its excessive use is that cause of the problem – and that covers a whole range of issues including local air quality, greenhouse gas emissions, traffic congestion, road safety and human health. Take cars out of most urban environments and the neighbourhood improves overnight.

A lot of what is wrong with transit in general is that far too much accommodation has been made for cars, but that is changing slowly. Bus stops that stick out into the travel lane as opposed to those that require the bus to get out of the cars’ way are a good start. So are exclusive bus lanes – especially when they are taken away from other traffic not used as an excuse to widen roads.

The Richmond Rapid Bus (that became the 98 B line) that I worked on should have been much better than it was – or is now. And that could have allowed for the Canada Line to be put off for a while, itself a worthwhile aim, I think. But is was sunk by traffic engineers obsessed with vehicle capacity who refused to allow the use of people carrying capacity as the metric. And, of course, most of the public outrage was carefully manipulated. What had really upset the residents of the most expensive area of Vancouver was that people from Richmond were driving through it! They had accepted the Arthur Laing because they used the airport too, but the Number Two Road bridge was a betrayal. And restriping Granville to three narrow lanes “without consulting us” was unforgiveable. That is why the opponents used the terms “Say No to Granville Highway” – because even they could see that opposing better bus service was elitist. Indeed the only really bad faux pas in transit discussions in recent years was that silly woman who talked about “la crème de al crème“. She deserved to get a tram up her Arbutus for that if nothing else!

The bus rapid transit system along Insurgentes Avenue in Mexico City, a project of EMBARQ – The WRI Center for Sustainable Transport.
EMBARQ website
Photo by Robin Murphy, 2007.

Written by Stephen Rees

April 7, 2008 at 8:40 am

Posted in transit, Urban Planning

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